Institute for Environmental Medicine

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Robert Gelfand, M.E.E.

Assistant Director of Core Systems, Institute for Environmental Medicine
Collaborating Investigator (U.S. Navy Hyperoxia Research Program)
Collaborating Investigator (NASA Research Project)

Contact Information

Room 1, John Morgan Building
36th Street & Hamilton Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6068
(215) 898-9098


Yale University, 1952.
Yale University, 1954.

Description of Research Expertise

Research Interests:
Study of physiologic manifestations of acute hyperoxia and toxic manifestations of prolonged hypoxia in man.

Summary of Research Programs:
Oxygen is administered at elevated ambient pressures (hyperoxia) as a treatment modality for a variety of conditions in patients. It is also used in diving (commercial, scientific, military) to improve the speed and safety of decompression from depth, and to treat decompression sickness. It is used in aerospace operations to decrease the incidence of, and to treat decompression sickness associated with rapid ascent to high altitude in aircraft, and during decompression associated with extravehicular activity in space. Prior investigations (currently a focus of documentation activity) emphasized effects of prolonged continuous hyperoxia at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 ATA on a variety of organs, methods of extending pulmonary and CNS tolerance to hyperoxia, effects of physical exercise on tolerance to hyperoxia, and effects of immersion in water on respiratory and brain circulatory responses to progressive exercise and to progressive hypercapnia.

Research Techniques:
Measurement of physiologic and toxic responses to hyperoxia

Selected Publications

Cameron B.A., Olstad C.S., Clark J.M., Gelfand R., Ochroch E.A., and Eckenhoff, R.G. Risk factors for venous gas emboli after decompression from prolonged hyperbaric exposures. Aviat, Space, Environ Med:78:493-9, 2007.

Gelfand R., Lambertsen C.J. and Clark J.M. Ventilatory effects of prolonged hyperoxia at pressures of 1.5-3.0 ATA. Aviat, Space, Environ Med,77:801-810, 2006.

Clark J.M., Lambertsen, C.J., Gelfand R., and Troxel A.B. Optimization of oxygen tolerance extension in rats by intermittent exposure. J. Appl. Physiol. 100: 869-879, 2006.

Floyd, T.F., Clark, J.M., Gelfand, R., Detre, J.A., Ratcliffe, S., Guvakov, D., Lambertsen, C.J., and R.G. Eckenhoff. The independent cerebral vasoconstrictive effects of hyperoxia and accompanying hypocapnia at one ATA. J. Appl. Physiol. 95: 2453-2461, 2003.

Clark, J.M., Lambertsen, C.J., Gelfand, R., Flores, N.D., Pisarello, J.B., Rossman, M.D. and Elias, J.A. Effects of prolonged oxygen exposure at 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 ATA on pulmonary function in men (Predictive Studies V). J. Appl. Physiol.86(1): 243-259, 1999.

Gelfand, R., Lambertsen, C.J., Clark, J.M., and Hopkin, E. Hypoxic ventilatory sensitivity in men is not reduced by prolonged hyperoxia (Predictive Studies V and VI). J. Appl. Physiol.84(1): 292-302, 1998.

Clark, J.M., Skolnick, B.E., Gelfand, R., Farber, R.E., Stierheim, M., Stevens, W.C., Beck, G. Jr., and Lambertsen,C.J. Relationship of 133Xe cerebral blood flow to middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in man at rest. J. CBF Metab. 16:1255-1262, 1996.

Clark, J.M., Gelfand, R., Lambertsen, C.J., Stevens, W.C., Beck, G. Jr., and Fisher, D.G. Human tolerance and physiological responses to exercise while breathing oxygen at 2.0 ATA. Aviation, Space, Environmental Medicine. 66(4): 336-45, 1995.

Clark, J.M., Jackson, R.M., Lambertsen, C.J., Gelfand, R., Hiller, W.D.B. and Unger,M. Pulmonary function in men after oxygen breathing at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 h. J. Appl. Physiol., 71(3): 878-85, 1991.

Clark, J.M., Hagerman, F.C. and Gelfand, R. Ventilatory capacity and breathing patterns in submaximal and maximal exercise in elite oarsmen. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 55(2): 440-446, 1983.

Gelfand, R., Lambertsen, C.J., Strauss, R., Clark, J.M. and Puglia,C.D. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 54(1): 290-303, 1983.

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