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Giorgos C. Karakousis, M.D., F.A.C.S.
Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery

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Administrative Office:
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Department of Surgery
3400 Spruce Street, 4 Silverstein
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Administrative Assistant: Bryn Farrelly
Administrative Telephone: 215-614-0857
Administrative Fax: 215-662-7476
Patient Appointments:

Clinical Office:
Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine
Cancer Center
West Pavilion, 4th Floor
3400 Civic Center Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Clinic Appointments: 215-615-5858
New Patient Coordinator: 215-615-0741
Clinic Fax: 215-615-5881

Contact Information (internal use only)


Dr. Giorgos Karakousis is a fellowship trained surgical oncologist. He earned his undergraduate degree from Yale University and his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. He completed his general surgery residency training and a research fellowship at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and went on to complete a fellowship in surgical oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. His clinical interests include melanoma, sarcoma and GI malignancies.

Faculty Appointments
2010 - present Assistant Professor of Surgery at HUP
Perelman School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Hospital and Administrative Appointments
2014 - present   Chair, Cancer Committee, Abramson Cancer Center
Perelman School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
2013 - present  Cancer Liaison Physician, Abramson Cancer Center
Perelman School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
2010 - present Surgical Governance Committee
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
2010 - present Attending Surgeon
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
2008 - 2010 Surgical Oncology Fellow Representative to GME Committee
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
New York, New York
2005 - 2006 Class Representative to the Resident Executive Council, Department of Surgery
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
2005 - 2006

Resident Coordinator for Medical Students
Department of Surgery
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1997 - 2001 M.D. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1992 - 1996 B.S., M.S. Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut
Postgraduate Training and Fellowship Appointments
2008 - 2010 Fellowship in Surgical Oncology
Department of Surgery
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
New York, New York
2004 - 2006 Post-Doctoral Research Fellow
Harrison Department of Surgical Research
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
2002 - 2008 Residency in General Surgery
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
2001 - 2002 Internship in General Surgery
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
National/International Societies
2013 - present Philadelphia Academy of Surgery
2009 - present Society of Surgical Oncology
2008 - present American Society of Clinical Oncology
2005 - present Association for Academic Surgery
2004 - present American College of Surgeons (ACS); Fellow of ACS (2012)
Local/Regional Societies
2013 - present  Philadelphia Academy of Surgery
  Current Research Activities
Research Publications, Peer Reviewed
  1. Karakousis G, Ye N, Li Z, Chiu S, Reddy G, Radding C.  The beta protein of phage lambda binds preferentially to an intermediate in DNA renaturation.  Journal of Molecular Biology 276(4): 721-731, Mar. 6, 1998.
  2. Li Z, Karakousis G, Chiu S, Reddy G, Radding C.  The beta protein of phage lambda promotes strand exchange. Journal of Molecular Biology 276(4):733-744, Mar. 6, 1998.
  3. Szeto W, Kreisel D, Karakousis G, Pochettino A, Sterman D, Kotloff R, Aracasoy S, Zisman D, Blumenthal N, Gallop R, Kaiser L, Bavaria J, Rosengard B.  Cardiopulmonary bypass for bilateral sequential lung transplantation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease without adverse effect on lung function or clinical outcome. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 124(2):241-249, Aug. 2002.
  4. Hendren S, Prabakaran I, Buerk D, Karakousis G, Feldman M, Spitz F, Menon C, Fraker D. Interferon-beta gene therapy improves survival in an immunocompetent mouse model of carcinomatosis. Surgery 135(4):427-436, Apr. 2004.
  5. Kesmodel S, Karakousis G,  Botbyl J, Canter R, Lewis R, Wahl P, Alavi A, Elder D, Ming M, Guerry D, Gimotty P, Fraker D, Czerniecki B, Spitz F.  Mitotic rate as a predictor of sentinel lymph node positivity in patients with thin melanomas. Annals of Surgical Oncology 12(6):449-458, June 2005.
  6. Karakousis G, Gimotty P, Botbyl J, Kesmodel S, Elder D, Ming M, Guerry D, Fraker D, Czerniecki B, Spitz F.  Predictors of regional nodal disease in patients with thin melanomas. Annals of Surgical Oncology 13(4): 533-541, Apr. 2006.
  7. Karakousis G, Gimotty P, Elder D, Ming M, Guerry D, Fraker D, Czerniecki B, Spitz F. Regional nodal disease is strongest predictor of survival in patients with thin vertical growth phase melanomas: A case for SLN staging biopsy in these patients. Annals of Surgical Oncology 14(5):1596-1603, May 2007.
  8. Karakousis G, Han D, Rapaport Kelz R, Neemani D, Karamacharya J, Roses R, Fraker D.  Interpretation of intra-operative PTH changes in patients with multi-glandular primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Surgery 142(6):845-850, Dec. 2007.
  9. Xu X, Gimotty PA, Guerry D, Karakousis G, Van Belle P, Liang H, Montone K, Pasha T, Ming ME, Acs G, Feldman M, Barth S, Hammond R, Elenitsas R, Zhang PJ, Elder DE.  Lymphatic invasion revealed by multispectral imaging is common in primary melanomas and associates with prognosis. Human Pathology 39(6): 901-909, June 2008.
  10. Huang JH, Lee FS, Pasha TL, Sammel MD, Karakousis G, Xu G, Fraker D, Zhang PJ.  Analysis of HIF-1alpha and its regulator, PHD2, in retroperitoneal sarcomas: Clinico-patho-logic implications. Cancer Biology & Therapy 9(4):303-311, Feb. 2010 (epub ahead of print).
  11. Katz SC, Baldwin K, Karakousis G, Moraco N, Buglino A, Singer S, Brennan MF.  Soft tissue sarcoma diagnosed subsequent to lymphoma is associated with prior radiotherapy and decreased survival. Cancer Apr. 4, 2011 (epub ahead of print).
  12. Karakousis G, Singer S, Zheng J, Gonen M, Coit D, DeMatteo R, Strong V. Laparoscopic versus open gastric resections for primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): A size-matched comparison.  Annals of Surgical Oncology 18(6):1599-1605, June 2011.
  13. Shah PK, Shah KK, Karakousis GC, Reinke CE, Kelz RR; Fraker DL. Regional Recurrence after Lymphadenectomy for Clinically Evident Lymph Node Metastases from Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Cohort Study: Bulky Nodal Metastases in Papillary Thyroid Cancer. Ann of Surg Oncol 2012 May; 19 (5): 1453-9.
  14. Reinke CE, Hadler RA, Karakousis GC, Fraker DL, Kelz RR.  Does the presence of thyroid cancer increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing thyroidectomy? Surgery 2011 Dec; 150 (6): 1275-85.
  15. Yang RL, Freeman K, Reinke CE, Fraker DL, Karakousis GC, Kelz RR, Doyle AM. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients: characteristics of patients selected for different treatment strategies.  Transplantation. 2012 Jul 15; 94(1):70-6.
  16. Reinke CE, Karakousis GC, Hadler RA, Drebin JA, Fraker DL, Kelz RR.  Incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing surgical treatment for malignancy by type of neoplasm: An analysis of ACS-NSQIP data from 2005 to 2010.  Surgery. 2012 Aug;152(2):186-92.
  17. Yang RL, Newman AS, Reinke CE, Lin IC, Karakousis GC, Czerniecki BJ, Wu LC, Kelz RR. Racial Disparities in Immediate Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy: Impact of State and Federal Health Policy Changes. Annals of Surgical Oncology (epub ahead of print Oct 3 2012).
  18. Karakousis GC, Pandit-Taskar N, Hsu M, Panageas K, Atherton S, Ariyan C, Brady MS.  Prognostic significance of drainage to pelvic nodes at sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with extremity melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2013 Feb;23(1):40-6.
  19. Abel EV, Basile KJ, Kugel CH 3rd, Witkiewicz AK, Le K, Amaravadi RK, Karakousis GC, Xu X, Xu W, Schuchter LM, Lee JB, Ertel A, Fortina P, Aplin AE. Melanoma adapts to RAF/MEK inhibitors through FOXD3-mediated upregulation of ERBB3.  J Clin Invest. 2013 Apr 1. doi:pii: 65780. 10.1172/JCI65780. [Epub ahead of print]
  20. Abraham RM, Karakousis G, Acs G, Ziober AF, Cerroni L, Mihm MC Jr, Elder DE, Xu X. Lymphatic Invasion Predicts Aggressive Behavior in Melanocytic Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential (MELTUMP).  Am J Surg Pathol. 2013 May; 37 (5):669-75.
  21. Yang RL, Newman AS, Lin IC, Reinke CE, Karakousis GC, Czerniecki BJ, Wu LC, Kelz RR. Trends in immediate breast reconstruction across insurance groups after enactment of breast cancer legislation.Cancer. 2013 Jul 1;119(13):2462-8.
  22. Bartlett EK, Roses RE, Gupta M, Shah PK, Shah KK, Zaheer S, Wachtel H, Kelz RR, Karakousis GC, Fraker DL.  Surgery for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors with occult primaries. J Surg Res. 2013 Sep;184(1):221-7.
  23. Bartlett EK, Meise C, Bansal N, Fischer JP, Low DW, Czerniecki BJ, Roses RE, Fraker DL, Kelz RR, Karakousis GC. Sartorius transposition during inguinal lymphadenectomy for melanoma. J Surg Res. 2013 Sep;184(1):209-15.
  24. Cintolo JA, Gimotty P, Blair A, Guerry D, Elder DE, Hammond R, Elenitsas R, Xu X, Fraker D, Schuchter LM, Czerniecki BJ, Karakousis GLocal Immune Response Predicts Survival in Patients with Thick (T4) Melanomas.  Ann Surg Oncol. Oct; 20(11):3610-7.
  25. Bansal N, Sonnenberg EM, Meise CK, Reinke CE, Karakousis GC, Bartlett EK, Mahmoud NN, Roses RE, Kelz RR.  The effect of colorectal cancer screening mandates on access to care and clinical outcomes: A retrospective study of patients undergoing operations of the colon and rectum.  Surgery. 2013 Aug; 154 (2):335-44.
  26. Bartlett EK, Meise C, Roses RE, Fraker DL, Kelz RR, Karakousis GC. Morbidity and Mortality of Cytoreduction with Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Outcomes from the ACS NSQIP Database. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print]
  27. Salasky V, Yang RL, Datta J, Graves HL, Cintolo JA, Meise C, Karakousis GC, Czerniecki BJ, Kelz RR. Racial disparities in the use of outpatient mastectomy. J Surg Res. 2013 Aug 20. [Epub ahead of print]
  28. Villanueva J, Infante JR, Krepler C, Reyes-Uribe P, Samanta M, Chen HY, Li B, Swoboda RK, Wilson M, Vultur A, Fukunaba-Kalabis M, Wubbenhorst B, Chen TY, Liu Q, Sproesser K, Demarini DJ, Gilmer TM, Martin AM, Marmorstein R, Schultz DC, Speicher DW, Karakousis GC, Xu W, Amaravadi RK, Xu X, Schuchter LM, Herlyn M, Nathanson KL. Concurrent MEK2 Mutation and BRAF Amplification Confer Resistance to BRAF and MEK Inhibitors in Melanoma. Cell Rep. 2013 Sep 17. [Epub ahead of print]
  29. O'Connell MP, Marchbank K, Webster MR, Valiga AA, Kaur A, Vultur A, Li L, Herlyn M, Villanueva J, Liu Q, Yin X, Widura S, Nelson J, Ruiz N, Camilli TC, Indig FE, Flaherty KT, Wargo JA, Frederick DT, Cooper ZA, Nair S, Amaravadi RK, Schuchter LM, Karakousis GC, Xu W, Xu X, Weeraratna AT. Hypoxia induces phenotypic plasticity and therapy resistance in melanoma via the tyrosine kinase receptors ROR1 and ROR2. Cancer Discov. 2013 Oct 8. [Epub ahead of print]
  30. Bartlett EK, Gimotty PA, Sinnamon AJ, Wachtel H, Roses RE, Schuchter L, Xu X, Elder DE, Ming M, Elenitsas R, Guerry D, Kelz RR, Czerniecki BJ, Fraker DL, Karakousis GC. Clark Level Risk Stratifies Patients with Mitogenic Thin Melanomas for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy.  Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Oct 12. [Epub ahead of print]
  31. Bartlett EK, Gupta M, Datta J, Gimotty PA, Guerry D, Xu X, Elder DE, Czerniecki BJ, Fraker DL, Karakousis GC.  Prognosis of Patients with Melanoma and Microsatellitosis Undergoing Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Nov 21. [Epub ahead of print].
  32. Xu X, Gimotty PA, Guerry D, Karakousis G, Elder DE. Lymphatic Invasion as a Prognostic Biomarker in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1102:275-286.
  33. Bartlett EK, Roses RE, Meise C, Fraker DL, Kelz RR, Karakousis GC. Preoperative radiation for retroperitoneal sarcoma is not associated with increased early postoperative morbidity. J Surg Oncol. 2013 Dec 30.
  34. Ma XH, Piao SF, Dey S, McAfee Q, Karakousis G, Villanueva J, Hart LS, Levi S, Hu J, Zhang G, Lazova R, Klump V, Pawelek JM, Xu X, Xu W, Schuchter LM, Davies MA, Herlyn M, Winkler J, Koumenis C, Amaravadi RK. Targeting ER stress-induced autophagy overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar 3;124(3):1406-17.
  35. Hoffman RL, Bartlett EK, Ko C, Mahmoud N, Karakousis GC, Kelz RR. Early discharge and readmission after colorectal resection. J Surg Res. 2014 Feb 15. pii: S0022-4804(14).
  36. Bartlett EK, Wachtel H, Fraker DL, Vollmer CM, Drebin JA, Kelz RR, Karakousis GC, Roses RE. Surgical Palliation for Pancreatic Malignancy: Practice Patterns and Predictors of Morbidity and Mortality. J Gastrointest Surg. 2014 Mar 27. [Epub ahead of print].
  37. Datta J, Lewis RS Jr, Mamtani R, Stripp D, Kelz RR, Drebin JA, Fraker DL, Karakousis GC, Roses RE.  Implications of inadequate lymph node staging in resectable gastric cancer: A contemporary analysis using the National Cancer Data Base. Cancer. 2014 May 22. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28780. [Epub ahead of print]
Reviews in Peer Reviewed Research Publications
  1. Kingham P, Karakousis G, Ariyan C. Randomized clinical trials in melanoma. [Review] Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 19(1):13-31, Jan. 2010.
For a full list of publications, please view my bibliography through the NCBI link.
Awards, Honors and Membership in Honorary Societies
2009 Traveling Fellowship (to the Surgery Branch of National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)
Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
2006 William T. Inouye Resident Teaching Award, Department of Surgery
University of Pennsylvania
1999  Hellenic Medical Society of New York Award
1996 Phi Beta Kappa Yale University
1996 Magna Cum Laude, Yale University

Dr. Giorgos Karakousis

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